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Mandera County is one of the 47 counties in Kenya, located in the North Eastern part of Kenya and borders Ethiopia to the North, Somalia Republic to the East and Wajir County to the South. It is about 1,100km from the capital city of Nairobi by road. The county has an approximate population of 1,025,756 and covers an area of 25,991.5 km. The County Administratively is subdivided into six Sub Counties namely Mandera West, Mandera South, Banisa, Mandera North, Mandera East and Lafey and 30 administrative wards.
Population distribution by livelihood zones is as follows; pastoral economy zone in the east and the central corridor, agro pastoral economy zone in the west and irrigated cropping zone in the north along the Daua River.
Mandera County is prone to periodic hazards of drought, floods and clan conflicts which have exposed communities to economic hardships. Clan conflict is a periodic hazard that displaces households, destroys property, causes injuries and death, restricts livestock movement and disrupts markets resulting in high poverty levels.
The persistent clan conflicts have had serious consequences on the county and have negatively affected socio-economic activities, education, business activities and livestock movement. Dozens of innocent human lives have been lost; while others injured and thousands displaced from their original homes. The ensuing violence resulted in an estimated displacement of 7,385 households, 95 deaths and over 100 injuries (source KIRA report July 2013), thereafter 17 others were killed and 19 sustained injuries. Families have been disintegrated, their economic livelihoods disrupted and families’ possessions lost. Local communities’ traditional livelihood sources have been damaged as a result of livestock theft/losses and destruction of business properties. However for the last one year the conflict has subsided and normalcy is gradually returning.


The Kenya Initial Rapid Assessment (KIRA) is a multi-sector, multi-agency mechanism whose purpose is to provide a fast overview of a humanitarian situation in order to:
• Support evidence -based decision making in the early stages of a humanitarian response
• Provide understanding of how humanitarian needs vary across different affected groups
• Identify where gaps may exist between need and local/national capacity to respond
• Identify further detailed information needs
The full methodology is described in the KIRA guidelines available on the following link
The Current multi-agency, multi-sectoral assessment covering different sample sites in four (4) sub-counties of Mandera County was triggered by the County steering group meeting convened on 16thSeptember 2015 putting into consideration the following factors;
• The need to clearly understand the humanitarian situation of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in various Camps and locations in the county. The last KIRA assessment was conducted in June 2014
• Understand the priority needs of the displaced population per site before the on-set of the anticipated enhanced rainfall (El-Nino) so as to provide information on priority interventions.
• Lack of uniformity in figures of the current displaced population per site.
• Determine the level of County disaster preparedness and contingency planning
• Understand the on-going interventions per site so as to avoid duplication of response interventions and ensure fair and equitable distribution.
Six (6) sites (two in each of the three Sub-Counties) were selected based on purposive sampling. Ten (10) Key informants Interviews (KII) and Ten (10) focal group discussions (CGD) were conducted.
Direct observation method (DOM) and transect walks were also used during the assessment. Triangulation of information between the various tools with the already consolidated secondary data was conducted. Debrief sessions were conducted on daily basis in the evenings. The assessment was conducted by multi-disciplinary teams comprising of different teams from the National Government (Ministry of Labour, Social Security and Department of Children Services and Child Welfare Society of Kenya), County Government and Humanitarian organizations, including Kenya Red cross Society (KRCS), Save the Children (SC) and National Drought Management Authority.
The enumerating teams from participating organizations were specialists drawn from Emergency Response, Administration, Coordination/Disaster Management, Data management, Documentation, Food security, Child care and protection.
Orientation on the KIRA tool was done for two (2) days, after which the Primary data collection was carried out in the field from 19th –22nd September, 2015.

Principales constatations: 

The affected populations that were interviewed can be categorized into four groups; displaced people in planned camps, resident population hosting displaced persons, displaced people living in host families and displaced people living in spontaneous camps.
• It has been almost a year since the County experienced the worst episode of inter-clan conflicts. 41% (6,275 HH) of the total population that was affected still requires humanitarian assistance to rebuild their livelihoods. Out of the 6,275HH, 4,153HH are in IDP camps.
• Women, children and aged people were heavily affected by the conflicts.
• Child labour as was observed in some sample sites like Guba where 35 children between the ages of 5-13 years were collecting stones and pebbles for construction materials. This is negative coping mechanism as a result of the conflicts that affected livelihood.
• There are terror attacks using explosives and grenades conducting attacks within Mandera town and Lafey road. The latest incident happened in July 2015 leading to loss of 14 lives and 11 sustained injuries.
• There is no major difference between residents hosting displaced people and the displaced people due to negative coping mechanism. Some of the coping mechanism are irreversible.
• The conflict subsided in April though displacements was realised in June 2015 in Lafey sub-county, this occurred at time the food security situation in the County is classified as alert with Mandera-east, Lafey and Mandera-North as worst-hit.
• Food security followed by shelter is the main priority for the affected population, access to safe water and support to re-start the livelihood of the affected population were also identified as key priorities.
• There has been an upsurge of diarrhoea from the months of April and May 2015 in Mandera-East and Mandera-West sub counties. There were 405 line-listing cases of Mandera-West and 33 cases in Mandera-East according to Ministry of health. The lack of safe water coupled with pans drying up has led to diarrhoea.
• The access to market has improved with key roads like Olla to Banisa opened up and active. Livestock market like Banisa has not been active.
• Distribution of assorted non-food items mainly by the Kenya Red cross was reported on all sites.
• School activities in the entire county has been seriously disrupted during the year due to clan conflicts, terror attacks, teachers strike leading to closure of schools and poor syllabus coverage.
• Negative coping mechanisms including skipping meals, restrict adult consumptions, rely on less preferred foods, sending children to neighbour and borrowing were reported among others..
• Open defecation has been reported and observed in most of the sites visited due to lack of household latrines.
• The nutrition survey carried out in the county revealed GAM rate of 24.0% and SAM rate of 4.1% with the situation deteriorating further. .
• All the assessment sites of the IDP’s covered had no operational health facilities except Burmayo with a community health worker, Guba dispensary was burnt to ashes during the recent clashes.
• The priority needs, as ranked by key informant interviewees indicated food, shelter, water and non-food items as priority.
• The host and displaced communities are dependent on water trucking. In areas that have earth pans, the water is highly turbid and contaminated, with frequent reported cases of watery diarrheal diseases. Long queues of women and children were seen at designated community water points.
• Cases of orphans and children separated from their primary care givers were reported. In Guba location, the orphaned children were involved in child labour activities.

Taille de l’échantillon : 
Six (6) sites (two in each of the three Sub-Counties)
Rapport d'évaluation: 
Questionnaire d'évaluation: 
Publicly Available
Données d'évaluation: 
Publicly Available
Date(s) de l'évaluation: 
19 sep 2015 - 23 sep 2015

Niveau de représentation

Governorate / State / Regional
État de l'évaluation: 
Report completed
Unité de Mesure: 
Méthode de collecte: 
Key Informant Interview
Focus group discussion
Type de population: 
Déplacés internes
Populations affectés par le conflit
Agence(s) chef de file: 
Government of Kenya - National Drought Management Authority
Organisation(s) participante(s): 
Child Welfare Society of Kenya
Kenya Red Cross Society
Save The Children
Fonds des Nations Unies pour l'enfance
Autres lieux: 
Coordination Inter-Clusters