Kilometer 13 evictions Joint Inter-Cluster Rapid Assessment
Kilometer 13 evictions Joint Inter-Cluster Rapid Assessment
Banadir region is home to the largest internally displaced population in Somalia, estimated at around 600,000 IDPs. Displacement in Somalia is caused by multiple factors, mainly drought and conflict triggered by political unrest in many parts of the country. The majority of the displaced live in crowded makeshift shelters along Afgoye corridor stretching from Km 9 to Km 14 hosted in Deynile, Dharkenley and Kahda districts. Long term structural problems and the absence of formal authorities has created complex structures in charge of managing IDP settlements.
Private individuals from host communities (gatekeepers) formally make agreements with private landowners who lease lands to them for unspecified periods of time, and involves regular payment of negotiated amounts. Landownership in Mogadishu is complex, mostly clan-based and without the involvement of central authorities. Land disputes often trigger conflicts which also end in causalities. Legal entities are either not operational or lack the capacity to create policies governing land tenure. Disagreements between land owners and settlement managers are common, resulting in violation of terms by all parties, which causes land owners to terminate agreements, and effecting evictions of populations without formal processes. Due to marginalization and the lack of protection from central authorities, displaced populations are the first victims of eviction.
The K13 case: On 29 December 2017, disputes between two parties over land ownership ended up in mass displacement of K13 IDPs. A court ruling came into effect reportedly transferring ownership from the landlord who had hosted IDPs to the one who evicted them, and allegedly advising the local administration not to stand in the way of the forceful eviction over 4,000 internally displaced households hosted in 21 IDP camps at Km13 in Kahda district.
Community leaders and affected communities interviewed reported to have witnessed the arrival of a bulldozer, protected by armed men in military and police uniforms, which began clearing everything in the settlements. Requests to halt the destruction by IDP leaders, and women and children who wished to save essential household items (among them food commodities and school stationery which were vital tools for learning) were ignored. There was massive loss of both personal and public property through destruction.
Critical communal infrastructure provided by multiple humanitarian organizations (including water points, sanitary facilities, community centers and public institutions) were all reduced to rubble. Some IDPs are still searching for children and animals that went missing in the chaos.
In the aftermath of the mass eviction, humanitarian actors planned a joint rapid assessment to assess the level of damage caused by the eviction, map current destination points of the affected families and identify their priority needs to recommend response.
The assessment team of 20 participants, led by OCHA and including representatives from the government, NGOs and UN visited Km 13 on Tuesday 2 January 2018, made observations and interviewed IDP leaders, representatives of affected population, Kahda local authorities, NGOs and witnesses at the scene (mainly host population and business operators along Afgoye highway).
The assessment team utilized multiple methodologies to gather data: interviews with Kahda authorities which provided information about the current situation, conditions of community centers and institutions hosting evicted population and specific data on numbers of households hosted per location, before being triangulated by the joint assessment team.
In order to assess the level of damage caused during the eviction, IDP community leaders and representatives were interviewed. Pre-eviction population data, and damaged community infrastructure were sourced from IDP populations and IDP community leaders. NGOs present in Kahda, that either lost infrastructure or are making effort to support displaced families, were interviewed. This helped quantify some of the NGO assets damaged or destroyed.
Observation was also used to note conditions of IDP origins, destinations, community centers, health facilities and other conditions and infrastructure.
Information sources confirmed the following destruction:
- 4 emergency schools and child friendly spaces (CFSs) supported by DBG, DRC and FENPS with total enrollment of 596 pupils and 12 classrooms,
- 12 institutions sanitary facilities
- 26 water points operated by PAH and HIJRA are among the damaged,
- 170 emergency latrines among them 9 concrete latrines constructed by PAH a week before the raid demolished,
- 1 feeding center that served as influx hosting site
- 3 community centers,
- 1 GBV center supported by SWDC,
- 9 Quranic schools
- 353 small scale businesses mainly operated by IDP women
Among the irreversible damages were shelters, livelihood platforms, tools like 7 tailoring machines provided to IDP women by PAH, food commodities and un-quantified household assets supplied by various humanitarian actors, mainly DRC and NRC. Both DRC and NRC had provided 7 months’ cash assistance to IDPs which ended in December, allowing families to make savings knowing that the intervention was at the end of the final cycle.
- The total population affected by the eviction is over 4,000 households (over 24,000 individuals) from 21 settlements. This is based on the inputs below:
o 4,500 households (27,000 individuals) evicted - Kahda District Authorities
o 4,200 – 4,300 households evicted – Community leaders
o Estimated 3,890 households evicted but now occupy community centers and other humanitarian institutions – Assessment team.
- Current location of evicted IDPs: Learning institutions, health and nutrition centers have become hosting centers for displaced population. Occupied institutions and community centers are overcrowded.
o Mandeq, Maqsud, Deman are 3 emergency schools supported by a local NGO FENPS, now occupied by 700 evicted families. Armale school run DBG also hosts 300 households. Teachers and learners have both confirmed the influx disrupted learning for 4 days now.
o Kamil community center is home to 900 families sharing limited spaces, presumably leading a 9 months old infant to suffocate and die on the day of the assessment, minutes before the assessment team left the site. His mother who was displaced from Canole camp (Km13) says her child did not show any sign of illness before.
o Sagal community center is accommodating 160HHs.
o Another group of 270 families who could not find spaces at community centers and institutions, are stranded on streets. An additional 62 households are still stranded along Afgoye highway, unable to relocate after failing to pay for the means of transport.
o Some 470 households managed to re-settle after gatekeepers and land owners negotiated a deal but these live in deplorable conditions without basic needs.
o Some 475 families are living with relatives in Kulan, Deman, Sagal, Kordamac, Mandeq, Armale, Misan, Macqul and Wadajir camps.
o WARDI supported health and nutrition centers accommodates 77 families.
o Some 475 households have moved to Deynile, but are scattered across a number of IDPs camps between K12-14.
o An unknown number of affected households went to various locations mainly Ceelasha, Garasballey and other parts of Kahda.
Women and children remained vulnerable because the severe conditions of overcrowding are pushing them out of limited available spaces, and they have spent days under the scorching sun and in open spaces during cold nights.
- Immediate life-saving needs include the following
o Emergency / temporary shelter
o Non-food items (NFIs),
o Water supply,
o Food (can be in the form of cash),
o nutrition and
o health support;
Ensuring that occupied schools return to functionality will prevent loosing another generation to ignorance.