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Nigeria: Basic Needs & Response Analysis Framework Report: Pilot Assessment In and Around Informal IDPs Settlements in Borno State - June 2017


Executive Summary -

1) Priority geographic areas, affected groups and needs: * The BNA in Nigeria identified Jere as the LGA where deprivation across all basic needs has the most serious or severe humanitarian consequences. Konduga and Maiduguri Metropolitan Council (MMC) were the next most affected. This situation was mostly due to lack of purchasing power and inadequate access to humanitarian assistance in Jere, and insecurity in Konduga.

* The highest proportion (25%) of people facing severe unmet needs was found in Konduga. In comparison, 21% of those interviewed in Jere were facing severe unmet needs and in MMC this fell to 5%. However, the largest proportion of households facing moderate needs is found in Jere (55%, compared to 41% in MMC and 39% in Konduga).

* The groups facing the most shortages across basic needs are IDP families in tents, followed by IDPs in collective centres, IDPs in host families and affected residents. IDPs in host families benefit from their host support and do not face the same level of expenditures when compared to IDPs in tents or in collective centres.

* The underlying factors contributing the most to unmet needs in Jere and MMC are (in order of importance) lack of purchasing power (due to inflation and reduced access to income), low levels of assistance, insecurity and decreased domestic production. In Konduga safety issues are the primary driver of unmet needs.

2) Composition of the basket of assistance: * The five basic needs most frequently mentioned as a priority for assistance by all affected groups are food, health commodities (medicines, etc.), potable water, and housing and shelter commodities.

* Those five items commonly account for more than 50% of the Minimum Expenditure Basket for all groups in all areas.

3) Critical markets and systems of service provision: * Markets and systems of service provision are generally functioning and 93% of the population can access basic goods and services within a 2-hour journey from their home.

* Across all geographic areas and interviewed population groups, 60% of households reported that basic goods and services are most commonly obtained via purchase from local markets or service providers and 29% from authorities or NGOs. The remaining needs are met via natural resources or the affected person’s own production. External assistance from authorities and NGOs is generally less accessible in Jere mostly due to a lack of registration and documentation for IDPs in informal settlements.

* Of concern is the significant dependence of the affected population on government and NGO assistance to accessing health commodities and potable water. This is especially significant for IDPs in collective centres and tents, in Konduga and MMC.

4) Preferred assistance modalities: * Due to the proximity of markets and the availability of goods and services locally, cash assistance is the favoured response option in Jere where 68% of the households interviewed consider that priority needs originate in lack of purchasing power, lack of assistance from authorities or NGOs, and safety.
* Requests for in-kind support prevail in Konduga for all five priority needs for assistance. 73% of the respondents reported safety, purchasing power and physical constraints as the main drivers of unmet needs. Participants to CGDs in Konduga also reported issues with the quality of the locally available services and goods (CGDs). Cash was mentioned as the second preferred type of assistance for food, shelter commodities and shelter/housing.
* A mix of assistance modalities is preferred in MMC for addressing priority unmet needs in food and health commodities (either cash, in kind or service provision). Cash is preferred to access shelter commodities or housing, while in-kind support (water distribution) or service provision (new water points) were more commonly requested to access potable water.

5) Minimum Expenditure Basket: * The most common size of one family in the visited areas is between 7 and 9 people. A family of 7-9 members would require an average grant of 99,000 NGN per month in Jere to meet basic needs, and 83,000 NGN in MMC. IDP families in collective centres have the lowest monthly average level of expenditure (60,000 NGN) and IDPs in tents the highest (133,000 NGN).
* The Survival Minimum Expenditure Basket (SMEB) identified during the Community Group discussions in Nigeria include expenses related to food, health commodities and services, energy, potable water and hygiene/sanitation facilities. For an average family, the SMEB is roughly 41.000 NGN in Jere and 33.000 NGN in MMC. The average monthly expenses are higher for IDPs in tents and the lowest for IDPs in collective centres and host families.
* For an average family, meeting the top five priority needs for which assistance was most often requested represents an average expense of 55,000 NGN per month in Jere and 45,000 NGN in MMC. IDPs in tents generally have larger expense than IDPs in collective centres or host families, especially for food, housing (purchase or repair of tents), shelter commodities and medicines.
* Cash grants need to take into consideration prices, consumption and expense variation from one month to the other. Expenses in households generally increase during the rainy season, with some month to month variation (up to 13%). In addition, there are extraordinary costs such as critical medical incidents and shelter repairs. In case of a cash grant, it is recommended to increase the monthly transfer value of 10% to account for variation and cover any extraordinary expenses. Finally, cash grants need to account for the inflation rate in Nigeria (for instance, Nigeria's consumer prices increased 16.25% year-on-year as of May of 2017) and the average income levels of assessed households (15,000 NGN in Jere, 9,700 NGN in Konduga and 22,000 NGN in MMC)

6) What’s next?
* The results of the BNA will feed into a response analysis and planning process where the feasibility of different preferred modalities will be assessed. This process intends to enable humanitarian actors in Nigeria Humanitarian Response to review the findings of the Basic Needs Assessment (June 2017) and the Multi-Sector Market Assessment (July 2017) and to make recommendations around the most appropriate response options, including cash transfer/vouchers, in-kind aid, services or a mix of those. The Response Analysis aims to inform the choice of sound response modalities, based on the basic needs of the affected populations, their reported access to critical goods and services (via markets or service providers), their aid preferences and operational feasibility.
* Where MPG are found to be a viable approach, the response planning process intends to provide information for the design of the MPG transfer (including guidance on expected outcomes, targeting criteria, amount of the transfer, duration, and frequency).

Assessment Report: 
Assessment Questionnaire: 
Publicly Available
Assessment Data: 
Publicly Available
Assessment Date(s): 
30 Jun 2017
Report completed
Unit(s) of Measurement: 
Collection Method(s): 
Key Informant Interview
Focus group discussion
Baseline data analysis
Population Type(s): 
Camp population
Host communities
Leading/Coordinating Organization(s): 
Plan International
Save The Children
World Food Programme
Nigeria: Complex Emergency - 2014-2020