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Mozambique: Humanitarian Response Plan - 2022

At least 1.5 million people in northern Mozambique
will need life-saving and life-sustaining humanitarian
assistance and protection in 2022 as a result of
the continued impact of armed conflict, violence
and insecurity in Cabo Delgado Province. Over the
course of 2021, the crisis in Cabo Delgado deepened
the needs of both displaced people—many of whom
have been forced to flee multiple times—and host
communities, who have continued to show incredible
solidarity in the face of increasingly stretched
resources and services. While some returns of people
to areas recaptured by the Government and allied
forces is anticipated in 2022, the situation remains
volatile. The conflict expanded geographically in
the latter months of 2021, including the first verified
attacks by non-state armed groups in neighbouring
Niassa Province.
More than 735,000 people were estimated to be
internally displaced in Mozambique due to the conflict
in Cabo Delgado by November 2021—including
663,276 people in Cabo Delgado, 68,951 in Nampula,
and 1,604 in Niassa—according to IOM’s Displacement
Tracking Matrix (DTM) Baseline Assessment Round 14.
Children accounted for 59 per cent of displaced people,
while more than half (52 per cent) of displaced people
were women and girls. There were more than 7,700
elderly people, nearly 4,200 pregnant women, more
than 3,000 unaccompanied children and more than
2,500 people with disabilities among those displaced.
Around 73 per cent of displaced people were staying
with family and friends in host communities’ whose
already meagre resources were strained tremendously
by the growing influxes. Pemba city now hosts
more than 150,000 displaced people, on top of
the original population of around 224,000 people,
putting the city’s health and education services under
immense pressure. In Metuge District, the number of
displaced people (114,905) is higher than the original
population (101,339).
Protection risks remain a grave concern—especially
for women and girls, people with disabilities, older
persons and people living with HIV/AIDS—with
reports of horrific violence against civilians, including
killings, beheadings and kidnappings. In 2021,
civilians attempting to leave Palma faced a challenging
situation. The journey was perilous and expensive,
with many people walking for days through the
bush to reach safer areas. At the same time, people
attempting to seek asylum in Tanzania were refouled
to Mozambique, with nearly 10,400 Mozambicans
forcibly returned from Tanzania to Mozambique
between January and September 2021, according to
UNHCR. People impacted by conflict are more likely to
be exposed to gender-based violence and child abuse
as well as to resort to negative coping mechanisms,
including transactional sex, and be exposed to
exploitation.
The armed conflict has also heightened food
insecurity and malnutrition, with families forced to
abandon their homes and fields with erratic rainfall
compounding crop losses. In the three northern
provinces—Cabo Delgado, Nampula and Niassa—more
than 1.1 million people are estimated to be facing
high levels of acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 or
above) during the 2021/2022 lean season (November
to March), according to the latest Integrated Phase
Classification (IPC) analysis. In a previous analysis of
seven southern districts of Cabo Delgado, more than
228,000 people who were either displaced (128,000) or
hosting displaced people (101,000) in their households
were projected to face severe food insecurity (IPC
Phase 3 or above) between April and September 2021.
The analysis covered internally displaced people in
five districts—Metuge, Ancuabe, Chiúre, Namuno and
Balama—and households hosting internally displaced
people in seven districts—Pemba City, Montepuez,
Metuge, Ancuabe, Chiúre, Namuno and Balama—and
highlighted the severe toll the crisis has taken on
host communities.
Essential services across Cabo Delgado have been
significantly impacted by the increasing violence.
Nearly half of Cabo Delgado’s health centres (43 out
of 88) were closed due to insecurity. The conflict has
reportedly resulted in the destruction of 43 schools,
104 classrooms, 30 administrative blocks and 5
buildings of Cabo Delgado’s education services since
it began in 2017. In Mocimboa da Praia, widespread
destruction of infrastructure—including airports,
hospitals, schools, water and electrical systems—was
reported in areas retaken by security forces in August.

Operation(s)/ Webspace(s): 
Organization(s): 
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Original Publication Date: 
01 Jan 2022
Document type: 
Strategic Response Plan
Coordination hub(s): 
Maputo
Pemba
Disaster(s)/Emergency: 
Tropical Storm Ana - Jan 2022