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The Assessment of the Needs of & Services Provided to GBV Survivors in Iraq

Subject/Objective: 

With the end of the large-scale military offensives in late 2017 and the liberation of all areas from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), the humanitarian crisis in Iraq entered a new phase of recovery and reconstruction. Therefore, attention turned to longer-term priorities. Despite the new transition, the devastating impact of the three-year battle on women and girls in Iraq remains profound as Gender-Based Violence (GBV), including sexual violence and forced marriages, was used as a weapon of war. However, GBV is not only the result of the conflict in Iraq but exists within the different communities in the country; approximately 63 percent of incidents are perpetrated by partners, brothers, fathers, and mothers. For that reason, UNFPA, in partnership with the GBV sub-cluster and working groups members, conducted a Survivors’ Assessment in order to identify the evolving needs of the survivors of Gender-Based Violence (GBV) across Iraq. As an outcome of this assessment, a list of recommended actions has been developed; including policy action and capacity building of government and local partners, to ensure that GBV survivors receive the care and support that they need and to strengthen the GBV multi-sectoral prevention and response in Iraq. It is important that the government decisions and systems related to the protection of and services offered to the survivors of GBV are adequately tailored based on the identified needs of these survivors. A logical output of the needs assessment will be a Survivor Support Strategy owned by the government authorities and a capacity development plan for government institutions to provide the services required by GBV survivors throughout the country. UNFPA and GBV actors across Iraq will continue to work closely with government agencies, civil society organisations and other service providers to ensure that the safety, protection, and dignity of the GBV survivors, remain a priority in the upcoming years.

Methodology: 

The Survivors’ Needs Assessment generally employed a deductive, analytical process where conclusions and recommendations were drawn on the basis of data collected through survey questionnaire from the survivors of GBV and Case Managers, as well as from various service providers and relevant ministries through FGDs.Geographical scope:

This assessment was conducted in 11 governorates in Iraq, which are: Anbar, Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Diyala, Erbil, Karbala, Kirkuk, Ninawa, Salahaddin, and Sulaimaniya. Using a scientific sampling method, 170 locations in these 11 governorates were selected for the study.

Assessment scope: Data were collected from 1,000 GBV survivors, 200 case managers, whereas eight sessions were held with the ministries from both the Central Government in Baghdad and the Regional Government in Erbil, as well as 11 FGDs sessions held with organizations at the level of governorates. A total of 150 participants took part in the FGDs sessions. Overall, over 60 organizations and eight ministries (Ministries of Health, Justice, Interior, Social Affairs and Displacement and Migration) in Baghdad and Erbil took part in this assessment.

Key findings: 

Some of the key findings of this assessment are: First: with regard to survivors:

  • Women and girls have experienced GBV incidents four times more than males. Emotional abuse, deprivation of, and access to resources, and domestic violence comprised the vast majority of GBV incidents. 63% of all the GBV incidents were perpetrated by the intimate partners, brothers, fathers and mothers; that means incidents took place within the home.
  • Female survivors had better access to social support centers (e.g. women’s and youth centers) twice as much as male survivors. However, on average 82% of survivors did not report GBV cases to the police.
  • Access to services was reported the lowest amongst the returnees (31%), followed by the host communities (49%), then the IDPs in the camps (64%), and it was the highest amongst the refugees (78%).
  • The level of satisfaction towards health, psychosocial, safety, legal and referral pathway services was the lowest amongst the returnee survivors (35%), followed by the refugees (54%), and then the host communities (59%). It was the highest amongst the IDPs (60%). Amongst the types of services, satisfaction for psychosocial services was rated as the highest whereas the case management services, the lowest.

 Survivors needed the following services most:

  • The IDPs were primarily in need of psychosocial support, including emotional support and psychosocial counseling, followed by primary health care services, including medical counseling and provision of medications, and thirdly food and livelihood support.
  • The refugees were primarily in need of psychosocial support, such as emotional support and case management, followed by livelihood support, and thirdly primary health care services, such as the provision of medications and medical counseling.
  • The returnees were primarily in need of food and primary health care services, such as medical counseling and provision of medications, followed by livelihood opportunities and safety and security, and thirdly education services.
  • The host communities were primarily in need of psychosocial support, including emotional support and awareness-raising support, followed by livelihood opportunities, and thirdly primary health care services, such as medical counseling and provision of medications.

 Please refer to the report to know more key findings:

  • About the main reasons for the lack of access to services,
  • With regard to case managers,
  • With regard to FGDs held with the ministers,
  • With regard to FGDs held with humanitarian actors.
Sample size: 
Data were collected from 1,000 GBV survivors, 200 case managers, whereas eight sessions were held with the ministries from both the Central Government in Baghdad and the Regional Government in Erbil, as well as 11 FGDs sessions held with organizations at
Assessment Questionnaire: 
Not Available
Assessment Data: 
Not Available
Operations(s)/Webspace(s): 
Assessment Date(s): 
15 Jul 2017 to 01 Jul 2019

Level of Representation

National
Frequency: 
Other
Status: 
Report completed
Unit(s) of Measurement: 
Individuals
Collection Method(s): 
Mixed
Population Type(s): 
Displaced population
Refugees
Returnees
Host communities
Cluster(s)/Sector(s): 
Leading/Coordinating Organization(s): 
United Nations Population Fund
Location(s): 
Iraq
Other location: 
Anbar, Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Diyala, Erbil, Karbala, Kirkuk, Ninawa, Salahaddin, and Sulaimaniya
Theme(s): 
Capacity Building
Mental Health / Psycho Social Support
Needs Assessment
Sexual and Gender based Violence
Disaster(s)/Emergency: 
Iraq: Mosul Crisis 2016-2017