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Cameroon: Humanitarian Dashboard - Response Monitoring (January - December 2021)

SITUATION OVERVIEW 2021

In 2021, the humanitarian situation in Cameroon was characterized by three complex emergencies namely the conflict in the Far North region, violence in the North-West and South-West regions and the presence of over 325,000 refugees from the Central African Republic (CAR) in the eastern regions (East, Adamawa and North). Humanitarian needs were compounded by structural development weaknesses and chronic vulnerabilities that further challenge the long-term recovery of affected people. The socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a deterioration of the well-being of the people living in Cameroon.

Despite efforts deployed, the severity of humanitarian needs in Cameroon remained acute due to the prolonged crises, insecurity and displacement, the impact of COVID-19, and climate change-related events such as floods and droughts, which have eroded the remaining household resilience. As a result, in 2021, 4.4 million people were in need of humanitarian assistance. The Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) 2021 targeted 3 million people in need of urgent assistance and required US$ 362 million to provide sustainable support to people in need.

As of 31 December 2021, population movement were affecting almost 2 million people within Cameroon, either as internally displaced persons (IDPs), refugees or returnees. Cameroon was hosting over 933,000 IDPs and about 518,000 returnees, mainly in the North-West, South-West and Far North regions. The country counted over 474,000 refugees and asylum seekers, including about 342,000 refugees from CAR and more than 120,000 from Nigeria.

From October to December 2021, 2.4 million people, (9.2 per cent of the Cameroonian population), were food insecure according to the Cadre Harmonisé analysis of October 2021. The situation was described as rather precarious in the North-West, South-West, Far-North, Littoral and West regions, due to violence and insecurity as well as the additional pressure on household food stocks caused by displacement.

A multi-sectoral needs assessment (MSNA), which was conducted in the Far North in July 2021, found that food is the priority need for the displaced population (44 per cent), as well as for the host community (61 per cent), followed by access to drinking water and health for the host community and shelter for the displaced population.

Climate change has intensified conflict over natural resources in the Far North. In August 2021, inter-community clashes in Logone-Birni (Logone et Chari) over access to water erupted. In December 2021, new clashes broke out in Logone-Birni which rapidly spread to the rest of the Logone et Chari and Mayo-Danay divisions with humanitarian impact also in the Mayo-Sava and Diamaré divisions. As of 31 December, the violence had led to the internal displacement of over 32,000 people. Over 35,000 people were pre-registered as refugees in neighboring Chad.

Widespread insecurity in the North-West and South-West regions continued to result in abuses against civilians and led to forced displacements. Protection continues to be a major humanitarian concern in the two regions.

The number of CAR refugees located in the eastern regions increased from 315,000 in September to 325,000 in December 2021. Access to livelihoods, food, WASH services and education remained limited for these refugees and the communities hosting them.

Operation(s)/ Webspace(s): 
Organization(s): 
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Original Publication Date: 
11 Mar 2022
Map/Infographic Type: 
Humanitarian Dashboard
Location(s): 
Cameroon
Theme(s): 
COVID-19
Child Protection
Humanitarian Access
Humanitarian Assistance
Humanitarian Financing
Humanitarian Profile
Sexual and Gender based Violence
Coordination hub(s): 
Bamenda Coordination Hub
Buea Coordination Hub
CAR Crisis (Adamaoua, East & North regions)
Maroua Coordination (Kousséri)
Maroua Coordination Hub
Yaoundé Coordination Hub
Disaster(s)/Emergency: 
Cameroon: North West and South West Crisis 2016-2022
Cameroon: Far-North Crisis 2014-2022